The whole state of Nagaland is rich in Biodiversity. Nagaland comes under the Indo-Burma (Myanmar) Biodiversity hotspots of the world. It lies between 25°06’ and 27°04’ latitude, north of equator and between the longitudinal lines 93°20’ E and 95°15’ E. The area of the State is 16,579 sq.kms. Though, small in surface area the geographical location with varied climatic conditionranging from tropical to temperate conditions have greatly influenced the rich floristic and faunal diversity in the state.
The flora of Nagaland shows great affinities with flora of Indo-Malaya and Indo-China. The angiospermic flora is represented by about 2,431 species belonging to 963 genera and 186 families. In this, the share of dicots is 1,688 species, 724 genera from 158 families and monocots by 743 species under 239 genera from 28 families. Gymnosperms also register their presence with 9 species, under 6 genera from 5 families. There are over a thousand species of orchids in India and Nagaland alone has about 360 orchid species. There are about 71 bamboo species, 12 cane species and 41 allied species, 346 lichens and 103 Red Data Plants. The faunal diversity includes about67 commonwild animals, 519 bird species and 149 fish species and a number of reptiles and amphibians.
The great Indian hornbill is one of the most famous birds found in the State. Blyth’s tragopan, a vulnerable species of pheasant, is the State bird of Nagaland. It is sighted on Mount Japfü and Dzükou valley of Kohima district, Satoi range in Zunheboto district and Pfütsero in Phek district. The world’s biggest and tallest Rhododendron tree discovered in 1993 featured in the Guinness Book of World Records, measuring up to 108 feet and can be found at the base of Japfü Peak. Mithun, an endemic animal to the North-East Indiais the State animal of Nagaland. The state is also known as “Falcon Capital of the World.” It is the primary stopover roosting site for Amur falcons in places like Wokha, Longleng, Peren, Dimapur, Phek etc. The famed Guinness World Records, London recognized the MelhiteLha (paddy) species as the tallest Paddy in the world on December 2001 and Naga King Chilly was also recorded as the World’s Hottest Chilly in 2007.